程式扎記: [TOEIC Test] Part 6 : Text Completion

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2011年1月22日 星期六

[TOEIC Test] Part 6 : Text Completion

Prefix : 
Both Part 5 and Part 6 test your knowledge of grammar and your ability to interpret correctly the meaning of a sentence. The practice section for Part 6, however, is different .It includes examples of Patterns to Remember and TOEIC Test Practice for these two groups of grammar patterns : 

* Adjective Comparisons and Superlatives, Gerunds(動名詞) and Infinitives(不定詞), and Modals.
* Participles(分詞), Verbal Adjectives, and Pronouns(代名詞).

In Part6, you will read a letter, an e-mail, an article, or some other prose passage. In the passage, four words or phrases will be deleted. Each blank (a deleted word or phrase) will have four answer options written below. You are to choose the one that best completes the passage. Some of the blanks can be filled in by reading just one sentence. You will have to read and understand the whole passage to fill in some of the other blanks. 

Strategies : 
Your preparation for Part6 will be similar to your study of the strategies for Part5. In fact, may of the grammar topics in Part5 are tested again in Part6 in the new TOEIC test. There are inference questions that will oblige you to read the entire passage. These questions will focus on tense, pronouns, and contextual meaning. Study the Patterns to Remember in the grammar review section and pay close attention to the following common traps. 
* In an adjective comparison in the superlative, make sure the is not omitted. 

INCORRECT :
It is biggest I have ever seen.
CORRECT :
It is the biggest I have ever seen.

* In an adjective comparison in the comparative, make sure than is not omitted. 

INCORRECT :
She is taller I.
CORRECT :
She is taller than I.

* Note which verbs can be followed by a gerund, which by an infinitive, and which by either. 

INCORRECT :
We decided leaving early.
CORRECT :
We decided to leave early.

* Make sure the modal matches the tense of the sentence. 

INCORRECT :
Last year we hoped she will come.
CORRECT :
Last year we hoped she would come.

* Determine whether the verbal adjective is the cause(-ing) or the object (-ed) of the feeling or reaction. 

INCORRECT :
To me, this subject is interested.
CORRECT :
To me, this subject is interesting.

* A pronoun must agree with its antecedent. 

INCORRECT :
The company gave her employees raises.
CORRECT :
The company gave its employees raises.

* A pronoun must be the correct form. 

INCORRECT :
He gave it to Tom and I.
CORRECT :
He gave it to Tom and me.

Adjective Comparisons And Superlatives : 
Adjectives can be used to compare two things (comparatives) or more than two things (superlatives). The comparisons can be made by adding endings to the base form of the word (prettier, the prettiest) or by placing more or most before the word (more intelligent, the most intelligent) 

Patterns To Remember : 
* The comparative form uses than. 

INCORRECT :
They seem more experienced then they are.
CORRECT :
They seem more experienced than they are.

* The precedes the adjective in the superlative form. 

INCORRECT :
Biggest demand is from the Midwest.
CORRECT :
The biggest demand is from the Midwest.

* When comparing three or more things, use the superlative. 

INCORRECT :
This is the more obvious problem we face.
CORRECT :
This is the most obvious problem we face.

* When comparing two things equally, use as + adjective + as. 

INCORRECT :
Fred is not ambitious as Mark.
CORRECT :
Fred is not as ambitious as Mark.

* There are five irregular forms to be memorized. 

good | better | the best
bad | worse | the worst
far | farther, further | the farthest, furthest
little | less | the least
many,much | more | the most


INCORRECT :
This is the worse indicator we have seen yet.
CORRECT :
This is the worst indicator we have seen yet.

Gerunds And Infinitives : 
Gerunds (verb+ing) and infinitive (to + verb) are verb forms that can be used as nouns. They may be used in any position in a sentence where a noun may be used. When used as direct objects, the decision whether to use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb. These verb patterns must be memorized; lists may be found in most grammar reference books. 

Patterns To Remember : 
* Certain verbs take gerunds (admit, consider, enjoy, stop etc) 

INCORRECT :
He regretted to retire so early.
CORRECT :
He regretted retiring so early.

* Certain verbs take infinitive (afford, ask, decide, expect, etc) 

INCORRECT :
We expect arriving late.
CORRECT :
We expect to arrive late.

Modals : 
Modals are auxiliaries (helping words) that signal the tense of the verb and add to its meaning. 

PRESENT/FUTURE MODALS | PAST MODALS | PERFECT MODALS
can | could | could have
may | might | might have
will | would | would have
shall | should | should have
has/have to | had to | has/have had to
must | | must have

Patterns To Remember : 
* A main verb in the present tense means a present modal in the subordinate clause. 

INCORRECT :
The final decision is that he could go ahead with his project.
CORRECT :
The final decision is that he can go ahead with his project.

* A main verb in the past tense means a past modal in the subordinate clause. 

INCORRECT :
Last month, he thought he will retire.
CORRECT :
Last month, he thought he would retire.

* Perfect modals are used when the action of a verb in the subordinate clause is supposed to have occurred already. 

INCORRECT :
thought he should be promoted last month.
CORRECT :
I thought he should have been promoted last month.


INCORRECT :
They agree that we might make a mistake yesterday.
CORRECT :
They agree that we might have made a mistake yesterday.

* Must has two distinct meanings. When must means "necessity,", the past is had to ; when it means a logical conclusion, the perfect form must have is used

INCORRECT :
She must have used her vacation days, or she would have lost them. must is necessity>
CORRECT :
She had to use her vacation days, or she would have lost them.


INCORRECT :
Here's Brad's report. He had to forget to take it. 
CORRECT :
Here's Brad's report. He must have forgotten to take it.

Participles : 
On the new TOEICE test, you must select the appropriate participle in a participial phrase and must be able to determine its correct position in a sentence. 

VERB : speak
PAST PARTICIPLE : spoken
PRESENT PARTICIPLE : speaking

Patterns To Remember : 
* The participial phrase does not require a form of the verb be. 

INCORRECT :
The worker was causing the most problems was fired.
CORRECT :
The worker causing the most problems was fired.

* The participial phrase must directly precede or follow the noun it is modifying. 

INCORRECT :
The cat scared the child attacking the mouse.
CORRECT :
The cat attacking the mouse scared the child.

* The past participle represents a reduced passive form. This means the person or thing it describe has received, not done, an action. 

INCORRECT :
The meeting scheduling for this morning has been canceled.
CORRECT :
The meeting scheduled for this morning has been canceled.

Verbal Adjective : 
Patterns To Remember : 
* The present participle, or -ing form, can be an adjective which describes the person or thing that created or is creating a feeling or reaction. 

INCORRECT :
The company's amazed progress has captured everyone's attention.
CORRECT :
The company's amazing progress has captured everyone's attention.

* The present participle can be an adjective which describe the use or purpose of a person or thing. It can also describe the activity that the person or thing is involved in. 

INCORRECT :
We need more filed cabinets in this office. (file 指功能面)
CORRECT :
We need more filing cabinets in this office.


INCORRECT :
Promoted employees from within the company improves morale.
CORRECT :
Promoting employees from within the company improves morale.
這題非常容易, 單從主詞與動詞的單複數一看, 正確答案就出來了.
Promoted employees是"Adj.+N."的結構, 意為「被升職的員工」, 主詞是employees(複數);
Promoting employees是動名詞片語, 意為「晉升員工」, 動名詞片語當作主詞是單數.
本句的動詞是improves, 是單數動詞, 要配單數主詞, 所以正解是Promoting.

* The past participle can be an adjective which describes the person or thing that received or is receiving the feeling or reaction. 

INCORRECT :
The amazing stockholders rushed to buy more shares in the company.
CORRECT :
The amazed stockholders rushed to buy more shares in the company.

Pronouns : 
Pronouns can take the place of nouns or noun phrase. There are four forms of pronouns. 

SUBJECT PRONOUNS : I, you, she, etc
OBJECT PRONOUNS : me, you, her, etc
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS : mine, yours, hers, etc
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS : myself, yourself, herself, etc

On the new TOEIC test, it is important to remember to use the appropriate pronoun (form) in the correct place (position) or the appropriate possessive adjective + noun phrase. 

Patterns To Remember : 
* Pronouns cannot follow their antecedents directly. 

INCORRECT :
Shipping rates to Panama they fluctuate frequently.
CORRECT :
Shipping rates to Panama fluctuate frequently.

* Pronouns agree with their antecedents in number, gender, and grammatical function. 

INCORRECT :
That was our shipment, so we will pay for them.
CORRECT :
That was our shipment, so we will pay for it.

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