程式扎記: [TOEIC Test] Part 5 : Incomplete Sentences (VERBS : CONDITIONAL)

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2011年1月7日 星期五

[TOEIC Test] Part 5 : Incomplete Sentences (VERBS : CONDITIONAL)


Prefix :
Conditional sentences contain two distinct parts: the if-clause (condition) and result. In both of these parts, the verb forms change according to the time of the action(s). This structure is used for real and unreal (contrary-to-fact) statements in the present and past tenses.

Patterns To Remember :
* For a real condition in the future, the verb in the if-clause is usually in the simple present tense, while the verb in the result clause is in the future or imperative form.
INCORRECT :
If taxes will go up, we will need to borrow money.
CORRECT :
If taxes go up, we will need to borrow money.

* Sometimes the verb in the if-clause can have the modal auxiliary will. This is because the original meaning of will was "want." To say that a person wants or doesn't want to do something, you can use will+verb instead of the simple present tense in this clause.
CORRECT :
If they don't compromise, we should cancel the negotiations.
OPTION :
If they won't compromise, we should cancel the negotiations.

* For a real condition in the past, the verb in the if-clause is in the past, as is the verb in the result clause.
INCORRECT :
If they were waiting for a counteroffer, they would be wise.
CORRECT :
If they were waiting for a counteroffer, they were wise.

* For an unreal condition in the present, the verb in the if-clause is in the past form, while the verb in the result clause is would or could plus the simple(base) form.
INCORRECT :
If elephants have wings, they fly.
CORRECT :
If elephants had wings, they could fly.

* For an unreal condition in the present, the verb be in the if-clause is usually were, but it can also be was. Most English speakers prefer to use were.
PREFERRED :
She would raise salaries if she were the manager.
OPTION :
She would raise salaries if she was the manager.

Question :
* I though by now we would have learned the lesson that if we ignore overhead, we ? our expense.
(A) underestimating
(B) will underestimate
(C) would underestimate
(D) have underestimated
Ans. C > B
因為 ignore 為現在式, 所以使用 will 而不使用 would

* They will import 750,000 more automobiles a year if international quotas set by the ministry ? lifted.
(A) are
(B) be
(C) will be
(D) have been
Ans. D > A
因為 They will..., 所以使用現在式 are.

* If the government ? an import fee, as it has threatened to do for years, prices of consumer goods will increase by at least 10 percent.
(A) will impose
(B) imposes
(C) has imposed
(D) is imposing
Ans. C > B
因為後面的 "will increase by...", 所以前面用現在式 imposes

* If there had been fringe benefits, such as a company car or stock options, I ? applying for the position.
(A) could consider
(B) considering
(C) would have considered
(D) will be considering
Ans. A > C
因為 "had been...", 後面應該也用完成式. 故選擇 "would have considered"
This message was edited 4 times. Last update was at 06/01/2011 22:00:26

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