Source From Here
what are network namespaces? Generally speaking, an installation of Linux shares a single set of network interfaces and routing table entries. You can modify the routing table entries using policy routing (here’s an introduction I wrote and here’s a write-up on a potential use case for policy routing), but that doesn’t fundamentally change the fact that the set of network interfaces and routing tables/entries are shared across the entire OS. Network namespaces change that fundamental assumption. With network namespaces, you can have different and separate instances of network interfaces and routing tables that operate independent of each other.
This concept is probably best illustrated through some examples. Along the way, I’ll introduce a few new ideas as well. First, though, I need to provide some assumptions.
Creating and Listing Network Namespaces
Creating/Deleting a network namespace is actually quite easy. Just use this command:
For example, let’s say you wanted to create a namespace called “blue”. You’d use this command:
You should see your network namespace listed there, ready for you to use.
Assigning Interfaces to Network Namespaces
Creating the network namespace is only the beginning; the next part is to assign interfaces to the namespaces, and then configure those interfaces for network connectivity. One thing that threw me off early in my exploration of network namespaces was that you couldn’t assign physical interfaces to a namespace. How in the world were you supposed to use them, then?
It turns out you can only assign virtual Ethernet (veth) interfaces to a network namespace. Virtual Ethernet interfaces are an interesting construct; they always come in pairs, and they are connected like a tube—whatever comes in one veth interface will come out the other peer veth interface. As a result, you can use veth interfaces to connect a network namespace to the outside world via the “default” or “global” namespace where physical interfaces exist.
Let’s see how that’s done. First, you’d create the veth pair:
Naturally, you could substitute other names for veth0 and veth1, if you wanted. You can verify that the veth pair was created using this command:
You should see a pair of veth interfaces (using the names you assigned in the command above) listed there. Right now, they both belong to the “default” or “global” namespace, along with the physical interfaces.
Let’s say that you want to connect the global namespace to the blue namespace. To do that, you’ll need to move one of the veth interfaces to the bluenamespace using this command:
If you then run the ip link list command again, you’ll see that the veth1 interface has disappeared from the list. It’s now in the blue namespace, so to see it you’d need to run this command:
Whoa! That’s a bit of a complicated command. Let’s break it down:
Configuring Interfaces in Network Namespaces
Now that veth1 has been moved to the blue namespace, we need to actually configure that interface. Once again, we’ll use the ip netns exec command, this time to configure the veth1 interface in the blue namespace:
In this case, you’re using ifconfig to assign an IP address to the veth1 interface and bring that interface up. (Note: you could use the ip addr, ip route, and ip linkcommands to accomplish the same thing.)
Once the veth1 interface is up, you can verify that the network configuration of the blue namespace is completely separate by just using a few different commands. For example, let’s assume that your “global” namespace has physical interfaces in the 172.16.1.0/24 range, and your veth1 interface is in a separate namespace and assigned something from the 10.1.1.0/24 range. You could verify how network namespaces keep the network configuration separate using these commands:
Connecting Network Namespaces to the Physical Network
This part of it threw me for a while. I can’t really explain why, but it did. Once I’d figured it out, it was obvious. To connect a network namespace to the physical network, just use a bridge. In my case, I used an Open vSwitch (OVS) bridge, but a standard Linux bridge would work as well. Place one or more physical interfaces as well as one of the veth interfaces in the bridge, and—bam!—there you go. Naturally, if you had different namespaces, you’d probably want/need to connect them to different physical networks or different VLANs on the physical network.
- [ 英文學習 ]
- [ 計算機概論 ]
- [ 深入雲計算 ]
- [ 雜七雜八 ]
- [ Algorithm in Java ]
- [ Data Structures with Java ]
- [ IR Class ]
- [ Java 文章收集 ]
- [ Java 代碼範本 ]
- [ Java 套件 ]
- [ JVM 應用 ]
- [ LFD Note ]
- [ MangoDB ]
- [ Math CC ]
- [ MongoDB ]
- [ MySQL 小學堂 ]
- [ Python 考題 ]
- [ Python 常見問題 ]
- [ Python 範例代碼 ]
- [C 常見考題]
- [C 範例代碼]
- [C/C++ 範例代碼]
- [Intro Alg]
- [Java 代碼範本]
- [Java 套件]
- [Linux 小技巧]
- [Linux 小學堂]
- [Linux 命令]
- [ML In Action]
- [Python 學習筆記]
- [Quick Python]
- [Software Engineering]
- [The python tutorial]
- ActiveMQ In Action
- Big Data 研究
- Design Pattern
- Device Driver Programming
- Docker 工具
- Docker Practice
- English Writing
- ExtJS 3.x
- Git Pro
- Hadoop. Hadoop Ecosystem
- Java Framework
- Java UI
- Learn Spark
- ML Udemy
- node js
- Python Std Library
- Python tools
- Ruby Packages
- Windows 技巧
Source From Here Question Can someone give me an example of why the "send" function associated with Python generator function...
來源自 這裡 前言 : Thread 是 threading 模塊中最重要的類之一，可以使用它來創建線程。有兩種方式來創建線程：一種是通過繼承Thread 類，重寫它的 run 方法；另一種是創建一個 threading.Thread 對象，在它的初始化...
Preface: 在這個階層中，我們只需考慮電路模組的功能，而不需考慮其硬體的詳細內容. Verilog 的時序控制為以事件為基礎的時序控制: * 接線或暫存器的值被改變。 * 模組的輸入埠接收到新的值 * 正規...
Source From Here Preface 本文實例講述了Python中 zip() 函數的定義及用法，相信對於Python初學者有一定的借鑒價值。 一、定義： zip([iterable, ...]) zip() 是 Python 的一個內建...