程式扎記: [Linux 文章收集] Introducing Linux Network Namespaces

標籤

2015年6月29日 星期一

[Linux 文章收集] Introducing Linux Network Namespaces

Source From Here 
Preface 
what are network namespaces? Generally speaking, an installation of Linux shares a single set of network interfaces and routing table entries. You can modify the routing table entries using policy routing (here’s an introduction I wrote and here’s a write-up on a potential use case for policy routing), but that doesn’t fundamentally change the fact that the set of network interfaces and routing tables/entries are shared across the entire OS. Network namespaces change that fundamental assumption. With network namespaces, you can have different and separate instances of network interfaces and routing tables that operate independent of each other

This concept is probably best illustrated through some examples. Along the way, I’ll introduce a few new ideas as well. First, though, I need to provide some assumptions. 
Throughout these examples, I’m using Ubuntu Server 12.04.3 LTS. Please note that support for network namespaces varies between Linux distributions; Ubuntu supports them but Red Hat doesn’t. If you’re thinking about using network namespaces, be sure your Linux distribution includes support.

Further, I’ll assume that you’re either running as root, or that you will prepend sudo to the commands listed here as necessary.

Creating and Listing Network Namespaces 
Creating/Deleting a network namespace is actually quite easy. Just use this command: 
ip netns { add | delete } <NETNSNAME>

For example, let’s say you wanted to create a namespace called “blue”. You’d use this command: 
# ip netns add blue
# ip netns
blue
...

You should see your network namespace listed there, ready for you to use. 

Assigning Interfaces to Network Namespaces 
Creating the network namespace is only the beginning; the next part is to assign interfaces to the namespaces, and then configure those interfaces for network connectivity. One thing that threw me off early in my exploration of network namespaces was that you couldn’t assign physical interfaces to a namespace. How in the world were you supposed to use them, then? 

It turns out you can only assign virtual Ethernet (veth) interfaces to a network namespace. Virtual Ethernet interfaces are an interesting construct; they always come in pairs, and they are connected like a tube—whatever comes in one veth interface will come out the other peer veth interface. As a result, you can use veth interfaces to connect a network namespace to the outside world via the “default” or “global” namespace where physical interfaces exist. 

Let’s see how that’s done. First, you’d create the veth pair: 
# ip link add veth0 type veth peer name veth1

Naturally, you could substitute other names for veth0 and veth1, if you wanted. You can verify that the veth pair was created using this command: 
# ip link list
...
67: veth1:  mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 8a:fc:3d:e2:04:69 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
68: veth0:  mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 4e:fb:40:f6:25:ef brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

You should see a pair of veth interfaces (using the names you assigned in the command above) listed there. Right now, they both belong to the “default” or “global” namespace, along with the physical interfaces. 

Let’s say that you want to connect the global namespace to the blue namespace. To do that, you’ll need to move one of the veth interfaces to the bluenamespace using this command: 
# ip link set veth1 netns blue
# ip link list | grep veth1 // veth1 disappear

If you then run the ip link list command again, you’ll see that the veth1 interface has disappeared from the list. It’s now in the blue namespace, so to see it you’d need to run this command: 
# ip netns exec blue ip link list
1: lo: mtu 65536 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
67: veth1:  mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 8a:fc:3d:e2:04:69 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

Whoa! That’s a bit of a complicated command. Let’s break it down: 
1. The first part, ip netns exec, is how you execute commands in a different network namespace.
2. Next is the specific namespace in which the command should be run (in this case, the blue namespace).
3. Finally, you have the actual command to be executed in the remote namespace. In this case, you want to see the interfaces in the blue namespace, so you run ip link list.

Configuring Interfaces in Network Namespaces 
Now that veth1 has been moved to the blue namespace, we need to actually configure that interface. Once again, we’ll use the ip netns exec command, this time to configure the veth1 interface in the blue namespace: 
# ip netns exec blue ifconfig veth1 10.1.1.1/24 up
# ip netns exec blue ifconfig veth1
veth1: flags=4099 mtu 1500
inet 10.1.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.1.1.255
ether 8a:fc:3d:e2:04:69 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

In this case, you’re using ifconfig to assign an IP address to the veth1 interface and bring that interface up. (Note: you could use the ip addr, ip route, and ip linkcommands to accomplish the same thing.

Once the veth1 interface is up, you can verify that the network configuration of the blue namespace is completely separate by just using a few different commands. For example, let’s assume that your “global” namespace has physical interfaces in the 172.16.1.0/24 range, and your veth1 interface is in a separate namespace and assigned something from the 10.1.1.0/24 range. You could verify how network namespaces keep the network configuration separate using these commands: 
* ip addr list in the global namespace will not show any 10.1.1.0/24-related interfaces or addresses.
* ip netns exec blue ip addr list will show only the 10.1.1.0/24-related interfaces and addresses, and will not show any interfaces or addresses from the global namespace.
* Similarly, ip route list in each namespace will show different routing table entries, including different default gateways.

Connecting Network Namespaces to the Physical Network 
This part of it threw me for a while. I can’t really explain why, but it did. Once I’d figured it out, it was obvious. To connect a network namespace to the physical network, just use a bridge. In my case, I used an Open vSwitch (OVS) bridge, but a standard Linux bridge would work as well. Place one or more physical interfaces as well as one of the veth interfaces in the bridge, and—bam!—there you go. Naturally, if you had different namespaces, you’d probably want/need to connect them to different physical networks or different VLANs on the physical network.

沒有留言:

張貼留言

網誌存檔

關於我自己

我的相片
Where there is a will, there is a way!